However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct. A much wider range of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). Early forms include: From these forms came the botanical Latin melongēna. A Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil. In some parts of India, miniature cultivars, most commonly called, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 14:00. Brinjal is the South Asian and South African name for the fruit of Solanum melongena, also called eggplant or aubergine. In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. This was used by Tournefort as a genus name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a species name in 1753. At market maturity, the fruit stem hardens and a sharp knife is needed to cut fruit from plants. Uses Eggplant or Brinjal is eaten grilled, stuffed, roasted, served in soups and stews and on kebabs, and used in curries and stir-fries. These forms also gave rise to the Caribbean English melongene. Harvesting is done by cutting the stem rather than by pulling the fruit. Brinjal Farming. FSB is a moth whose larvae bore into the stem and fruit of brinjal. Many seeds are formed in a single fruit (800-1000 in long brinjal and 1000-1500 in round brinjal). The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking. in brinjal determines and facilitates self or cross-pollination and subsequent fruit set. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, such as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush and the similar Greek melitzanosalata. Introduction of Brinjal (Eggplant): Brinjal or Eggplant is an important crop of subtropics and tropics. For this purpose, brinjal crop was grown in three selected districts i.e. Among various stylar levels in brinjal, long styled flowers shows high pollination as well as fruit set efficiency followed by medium styled flowers and so on (Chen 2001, Sekara and Bieniasz 2008). [52], Spacing should be 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. [10] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. (Q ÕDÉöèÚl20 S± ìÁI €èè>/'¤ÛJ0ô‡@¤Á‘“‡C¤ ÔD]. Divine Trap Industries - Offering smart trap Leucinodes Orbonalis (Brinjal Fruit And Shoot Borer) at Rs 25/set in Kolkata, West Bengal. Get contact details and address | ID: 20787810088 Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have an eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat' [49].. Eggplant is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep-fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık, or Turkish, Greek, and Levantine musakka/moussaka, and Middle Eastern and South Asian dishes. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. The Bt brinjal has been developed to give resistance against lepidopteron insects, in particular the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis)(FSB). Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. In the La Mancha region of central Spain, a small eggplant is pickled in vinegar, paprika, olive oil, and red peppers. The Italian melanzana, through folk-etymology, was adapted to mela insana ('mad apple'): already by the thirteenth century, this name had given rise to a tradition that eggplants could cause insanity. Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)", https://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/vangi-bhaat-recipe/, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eggplant&oldid=990957593, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Oxymatrine was effective at early vegetative stage. The ripe fruits are usually pale to bright yellow in colour; The seeds are scattered through the fruit, embedded in a firm placenta. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described as the "king of vegetables". [12] A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. The length of stem left on the plant can vary from 2,5 to 5,0 cm for American varieties and 2,5 to 7,5 cm for Asian varieties. [57], The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[58]. Stylar heteromorphism is common in brinjal and other fruit bearing Solanum species. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is usually eaten cooked. The result is berenjena of Almagro, Ciudad Real. In other words, style lengths longer than the anther tips or at around the peripherals of the anther sacs can set fruits. Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). Parmigiana di melanzane, eggplant parmesan. The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. Maharashtrian Vangi Bhat recipe. Persian bādingān was borrowed in turn into Arabic as bāḏinjān (or, with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān). [50][51] Seeds are typically started eight to 10 weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). How To Grow Brinjal. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. In English usage, modern names deriving from Arabic bāḏinjān include: All the aubergine-type names have the same origin, in the Dravidian languages. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt (optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines), or without yogurt, as in patlıcan şakşuka. Traditional, white-skinned, egg-shaped cultivars include 'Casper' and 'Easter Egg'. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. Schuhmacher and Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule, which is also a junior synonym of sticky nightshade (S. sisymbriifolium). Oxymatrine and spinosad were found to be effective against brinjal shoot and fruit borer, L. orbonalis. The flowers are white to purple in color, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. [31] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. They are known as talong and is widely used in many stew and soup dishes, like pinakbet. Brinjal Farming - Detailed Info & Guide | Secret Tips - check here how to grow brinjal as the commercial brinjal farming/cultivation. ÓDX ؈›ÝÄÀOÈ]š~–c!Fëç€ðK¼¥Ÿk|¶Èñ2\àõ Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of boron on flower and fruit setting and yield of ratoon crop of brinjal (Solanum melongina L) in the Eastern Region of Sri Lanka. The unfruitfulness of … Raw eggplant can have a bitter taste, with an astringent quality, but it becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. When an eggplant has flowers but no fruit, this is due to one of two issues. From Arabic, the word was borrowed into European languages. The white, egg-shaped varieties of the eggplant's fruits are also known as garden eggs,[22] a term first attested in 1811.
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