This task assesses both students’ understanding of the concept and their proficiency with the practices of modeling and developing oral. ? This interplay between learning a practice (data representation as an aspect of data analysis) and learning about a core idea (variation in a population), as well as a crosscutting concept (recognizing and interpreting patterns), provides an example of the power of three-dimensional learning, as well as an example of an assessment strategy. Before creating the instruction, it’s necessary to know for what kind of students you’re creating the instruction. The simulation generates reports to students about their progress toward goals for conceptual understanding and use of practices, and it also provides a variety of reporting options for teachers. Tasks designed with the characteristics we have discussed (three dimensions, interconnections among concepts and practices, a way to identify students’ place on a continuum) produce artifacts, discussions, and activities that provide teachers with information about students’ thinking and so can help them make decisions about how to proceed or how to adjust subsequent instruction or to evaluate the learning that took place over a specified period of time. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? the use of a variety of assessment activities that mirror the variety in NGSS-aligned instruction; tasks that have multiple components so they can yield evidence of three-dimensional learning (and multiple performance expectations); explicit attention to the connections among scientific concepts; and. SOURCE: Reiser et al. the capacity to present data from various external sources to students; the capacity to make information about the quality and range of student responses continuously available to teachers so they can be used for formative purposes; the possibility that tasks can be modified to provide more or less support, or scaffolding, depending on the point in the curriculum at which the task is being used; and. They are given during or closely following an instructional activity or unit. The infor… (2013). For teachers to incorporate tasks of this type into their practice, and to design additional tasks for their classrooms, they will need to have worked with many good examples in their curriculum materials and professional development opportunities. The teacher also invites students to consider how using mathematical ideas (related to ordering, counting, and intervals) helped them develop different shapes to represent the same data. Our starting point for looking in depth at classroom assessment is the analysis in Chapter 2 of what the new science framework and the NGSS imply for assessment. In the course of both small-group and whole-class discussions, students construct and challenge possible explanations of the process of deposition. As with the previous example, the formative assessment activity is more than just the initial question posed to students; it also includes the discussion that follows from student responses to it and teachers’ decisions about what to do next, after she brings the discussion to a close. The NGSS performance expectations each blend a practice and, in some cases, also a crosscutting idea with an aspect of a particular core idea. Such assessments provide evidence that informs teachers and students of the strengths and weaknesses of a student’s current understanding, which can guide further instruction and student learning and can also be used to evaluate students’ learning. Thus, the NGSS performance expectations for one disciplinary core idea may be connected to performance expectations for other core ideas, both within the same domain or in other domains, in multiple ways: one core idea may be a prerequisite for understanding another, or a task may be linked to more than one performance expectation and thus involve more than one practice in the context of a given core idea. The kind of instruction that will be effective in teaching science in the way the framework and the NGSS envision will require students to engage in science and engineering practices in the context of disciplinary core ideas—and to make connections across topics through the crosscutting ideas. Developing assessment tasks of this type will require the participation of several different kinds of experts. (This is often called pedagogical content knowledge.) ], Ms. B: OK. Talk to your partners. This set of tasks illustrates two points. Although learning is an ongoing process for both scientists and students, students are emerging practitioners of science, not scientists, and their ways of acting and reasoning differ from those of scientists in important ways. FIGURE 4-3 Sample question for Example 5, “Movement of Water. Both are needed to develop an effective scoring system. A structured framework for interpreting evidence of student thinking is needed to make use of the task artifacts (products), which might include data displays, written explanations, or oral arguments. CONCLUSION 4-3 It is possible to design assessment tasks and scoring rubrics that assess three-dimensional science learning. Although benchmark and interim assessments serve a purpose, we note that they are not the types of formative assessments that we discuss in relation to the examples presented in this chapter or that are advocated by others (see, e.g., Black and Wiliam, 2009; Heritage, 2010; Perie et al., 2007). Figure 4-2 shows the first models produced by five groups of students to depict the air in the syringe in its first position. We emphasize that there are many possible designs for activities or tasks that assess three-dimensional science learning—these six examples are only a sampling of the possible range. Ms. B: Haley, people have some questions for you. Task 4. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Table 1-1 shows the NGSS disciplinary core ideas, practices, and crosscutting ideas that are closest to the assessment targets for all of the examples in the report.3. . They are designed to promote model-based reasoning about the common organization and behaviors of all ecosystems (see Figure 4-9) and to teach students how to transfer knowledge they gain about how one ecosystem functions to examples of new ecosystems (Buckley and Quellmalz, 2013).17. When the climate changes the focal species will have to move north because it won’t be able to stand the warm weather. methodology from psychology, photo-elicitation, which is used to identify these issues. The aim of this kind of assessment activity is to guide teachers in using assessment techniques to improve student learning outcomes.12 The techniques used in this example demonstrate a means of rapidly assessing how well students have mastered a complex combination of practices and concepts in the midst of a lesson, which allows teachers to immediately address areas students do not understand well. The actual classroom discussion is shown in Box 4-2. New standards for science education make clear that new modes of assessment designed to measure the integrated learning they promote are essential. SOURCE: Songer et al. and odors and things like that, so, how would you show that? 6This example was drawn from research conducted on classroom enactments of the IQWST curriculum materials (Krajcik et al., 2008; Shwartz et al., 2008). The Purpose of Developing a Portfolio . For what will they use them? . Assessments used for summative purposes may be administered at the end of a unit of instruction. a claim (the prediction) as to whether or not they believe the IPCC scenario information suggests that climate change will affect their chosen animal; reasoning that connects their prediction to the model-based evidence, such as noting that their species needs a particular prey to survive; and. the gathering of information about how far students have progressed along a defined sequence of learning. Haley: Um . They are designed to provide evidence of achievement that can be used in decision making, such as assigning grades; making promotion. Explicit written statement that ties evidence to claim with a reasoning statement: that is, Zone B has the highest biodiversity because it has the highest animal richness and high animal abundance. The discussion shows how students engage in several scientific and engineering practices as they construct and defend their understanding about a disciplinary core idea. For this unit, where are the students expected to start, and where should they arrive? These questions have been tested in classrooms, and the response choices reflect common student ideas, including those that are especially problematic. or retention decisions; and classifying test takers according to defined performance categories, such as “basic,” “proficient,” and “advanced” (levels often used in score reporting) (Andrade and Cizek, 2010, p. 3). against their fingers when pushing in and the resistance as they pull the plunger out. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Miles: How are we going to put in the particles? Classroom assessment is both a teaching approach and a set of techniques. Assessment for Learning (Formative Assessment) They will need to include opportunities for students to engage in practices as a means to demonstrate their capacity to apply them. Teachers use the graphs the students create for formative purposes, for making decisions about further instruction students may need. No feedback or coaching is provided. It was designed to probe student understanding and to facilitate a teacher’s review of responses. It asks students not only to apply the crosscutting concept of energy and matter conservation, but also to support their arguments with explicit evidence about the chemical mechanism involved. Ms. B: Well, what she’s saying is that I should have black dots every which way, like that. Copyright | Feedback. Task 4 was classified as a Level 7 task because it did not provide students with any guides to the construction of explanations. SOURCE: Adapted from Gotwals and Songer (2013). It may require that students articulate a claim about selected structure-function relationships, develop or describe a model that supports the claim, and provide a justification that links evidence to the claim (such as an explanation of an observed phenomenon described by the model). Assessments can be classified in terms of the way they relate to instructional activities. . The models themselves provide a context in which the students can clarify their thinking and refine their models in response to the critiques, to make more explicit claims to explain what they have observed. The tasks may be used for both formative and summative purposes: they are designed to function close to instruction. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT: Learner-Centered: Classroom Assessment focuses the primary attention of teachers and students on observing and improving learning, rather than on observing and improving teaching. Whether intended for formative or summative purposes, evidence gathered in the classroom should be closely linked to the curriculum being taught. Those projections are taken from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data predictions for the year 2100 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007): see Figure 4-7. RECOMMENDATION 4-2 Curriculum developers, assessment developers, and others who create resource materials aligned to the science framework and the Next Generation Science Standards should ensure that assessment activities included in such materials (such as mid- and end-of-chapter activi-. SOURCE: SimScientists Calipers II project (2013). The students whose teachers used the Contingent Pedagogies Project demonstrated greater proficiency in earth science objectives than did students in classrooms in which teachers only had access to the regular curriculum materials (Penuel et al., 2012). One of the first things to consider when planning for assessment is its purpose. . In general, the purpose of assessment is to determine as accurately as possible what students should know, understand, and be able to do. FIGURE 4-9 Ecosystems target model for Example 8, “Ecosystems.”. Professional development must support teachers in integrating practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas in inclusive and engaging instruction and in using new modes of assessment that support such instructional activities. In that approach, professional development included opportunities for teachers to learn how to orchestrate classroom discussion of core disciplinary ideas. The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework for understanding a reformed view of assessment, where assessment plays an integral role in teaching and learning. The products of such instruction form a natural link to the characteristics of classroom assessment that aligns with the NGSS. The groups are asked to provide models of the air with the syringe in three positions: see Figure 4-1. Before undertaking this task, students have completed an activity that helped them understand a definition of biodiversity: “An area is considered biodiverse if it has both a high animal abundance and high species richness.” The students were also given hints (reminders) that there are three key parts of an explanation: a claim, more than one piece of evidence, and reasoning. SOURCE: Krajcik et al. We emphasize that implementing the conception of science learning envisioned in the framework and the NGSS will require teachers who are well trained in assessment strategies such as those discussed in this chapter. 5This is a form of meta-representational competence; see diSessa (2004). Scientific Question: Which zone has the highest biodiversity? Give your REASONING: Write the scientific concept or definition that you thought about to make your claim. She uses group-developed models and student discussion of them as a probe to evaluate whether this understanding has been reached or needs further development. They are formative in the sense that they are used for a diagnostic function intended to guide instruction (i.e., to predict how well students are likely to do on the end-of-year tests). As we note in Chapter 2. only a limited amount of research is available to support detailed learning progressions: assessment developers and others who have been applying this approach have used a combination of research and practical experience to support depictions of learning trajectories. It makes little sense for students to construct data displays in the absence of a question. The examples above involve tasks that cross different domains of science and cover multiple practices. . given the definitions of relevant terms. If you choos… Hint: Look at your abundance and richness data sheets carefully. The program materials include a set of “contingent activities” for teachers to use if students have difficulty meeting a performance expectation related to an investigation. Simulations of these environments can be used both to improve students’ understanding of complex ecosystems and to, TABLE 4-3 Sample Student Responses in Example 7, “Climate Change”. Collect data on the number of animals (abundance) and the number of different species (richness) in schoolyard zones. "The central purpose of Classroom Assessment is to empower both teachers and their students to improve the quality of learning in the classroom" through an approach that is "learner-centered, teacher-directed, mutually beneficial, formative, context-specific, and firmly rooted in good practice" (Angelo & Cross, 1993, p. 4). Assessment tasks may, by design, include more or less guidance for students, depending on the type of information they are intended to collect. Some of the examples involve formal scoring, while others are used by teachers to adjust their instructional activities without necessarily assigning student scores. Haley: I think you should color the whole circle in, because dust . Copyright by the author; used with permission. Science and engineering practices lend themselves well to assessment activities that can provide this type of evidence. 11Stream tables are models of stream flows set up in large boxes filled with sedimentary material and tilted so that water can flow through. SOURCE: NASA/GSFC/JPL/LaRC, MISR Science Team (2013) and Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2013). Chapter 2 discusses the implications of the NGSS for assessment, which led to our first two conclusions: Students will likely need repeated exposure to investigations and tasks aligned to the framework and the NGSS performance expectations, guidance about what is expected of them, and opportunities for reflection on their performance to develop these proficiencies, as discussed in Chapter 2. 10This curriculum, for middle school students, was developed by the American Geosciences Institute. 18In this approach, a facet is a piece of knowledge constructed by a learner in order to solve a problem or explain an event (diSessa and Minstrell, 1998). After receiving this information, teachers can reflect on each student’s level of achievement, as well as on specific inclinations of the group, to customize their teaching plans. After the class agrees that the consensus model should include air particles shown with arrows to demonstrate that the particles “are coming out in different directions,” the teacher draws several particles with arrows and asks what to put next into the model. Other odors. Testing Identifies Student Strengths and Weaknesses. Reprinted with permission from John Wiley & Sons. Copyright by the author; used with permission. Your goal is to get to know your student’s strengths, weaknesses and the skills and knowledge the posses before taking the instruction. assess what they have learned. In addition, several of the examples include summative assessments. 13The tasks were given to a sample of 6th-grade students in the Detroit Public School System, the majority of whom were racial/ethnic minority students (for details, see Songer et al., 2009). However, it is also important to determine the observations (the forms of evidence in student work) that are needed to support the claims, and then to develop tasks or situations that will elicit the needed evidence. . The food they eat might not be out of hibernation or done growing in the area it migrates to. (2013). that maybe you should take . The implementation of the NGSS is a complex subject that is beyond the scope of our charge; however, each of the examples shown has been implemented with diverse samples of students,21 and there have been students who succeeded on them (although there are also students who did not). dents’ thinking beyond their written (and drawn) responses to a task. The + and ++ symbols represent the number of guides provided in the task. This assessment is used formatively and is closely tied to classroom instruction. In the past, we built assessment systems to help us dole out rewards and punishment. If a student draws an arrow that links a food consumer to the wrong source of matter and energy, a feedback box coaches the student to observe again by reviewing the animation, thus providing formative feedback. Box 4-1 provides additional information about these types of assessments. For more information, see http://www.agiweb.org/education/ies [July 2013]. Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work. As part of an extended unit, students complete four assessment tasks. Abiotic and biotic factors can cause the red-backed salamander to relocate, such as temperature, precipitation, and invasive species. Teachers need support to learn to be intentional and deliberative about such decisions. However, because they predate the NGSS and its emphasis on crosscutting concepts, only a few of these examples include reference to a crosscutting concept, and none of them attempts to assess student understanding of, or disposition to invoke, such concepts. The task asks students to make and support a prediction in answer to the question, “In Future 3, would climate change impact your focal species?” Students are asked to provide the following: FIGURE 4-7 Three simplified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-modeled future scenarios for the year 2100. 10). The examples are drawn from different grade levels and assess knowledge related to different disciplinary core ideas. Their documentation also helps launch a student-led investigation focused on students’ own questions, which are refined as students encounter key ideas in microbiology. yeah, yeah, just to show there’s something in between it. 17The system was designed using the evidence-centered design approach discussed in Chapter 3. Air particles. Give your EVIDENCE: Look at your data and find two pieces of evidence that help answer the scientific question. The items are developed to provide only general information about whether students understand a particular idea, though sometimes the incorrect choices in a multiple-choice item are designed to probe for particular common misconceptions. The teacher is aware of an area of potential difficulty for students, namely, a lack of understanding that there is empty space between the molecules of air. In “Movement of Water” (Example 5, above), multiple-choice questions that students answer using. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Teachers use data from individual groups or from the whole class as assessment information to provide formative information about students’ abilities to collect and record data for use in the other tasks. Each of these four tasks was designed to provide information about a single performance expectation related to the core idea, and each performance expectation focused on one of three practices. 4 points: Contains all parts of explanation (correct claim, 2 pieces of evidence, reasoning), 3 points: Contains correct claim and 2 pieces of evidence but incorrect or no reasoning, 2 points: Contains correct claim + 1 piece correct evidence OR 2 pieces correct evidence and 1 piece incorrect evidence, 1 point: Contains correct claim, but no evidence or incorrect evidence and incorrect or no reasoning. CONCLUSION 4-1 Tasks designed to assess the performance expectations in the Next Generation Science Standards will need to have the following characteristics: 21Samples included students from rural and inner-city schools, from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, and English-language learners. Miles: That’s like the same thing over there. Assessments help teachers identify student strengths as well as areas where... 2 Monitor Student Progress. This set of four assessment tasks was designed to provide evidence of 5th-grade students’ developing proficiency with a body of knowledge that blends a disciplinary core idea (biodiversity; LS4 in the NGSS; see Box 2-1 in Chapter 2) and a crosscutting concept (patterns) with three different practices: planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and constructing explanations (see Songer et al., 2009; Gotwals and Songer, 2013). Students need frequent opportunities to reflect on where their … Reprinted with permission. Clusters comprise goal facets (which are often standards or disciplinary core ideas) and problematic facets (which are related to the disciplinary idea but which represent ways of reasoning about the idea that diverge from the goal facet). A multicomponent task may include some short-answer questions, possibly some carefully designed selected-response questions, and some extended-response elements that require students to demonstrate their understandings (such as tasks in which students design an investigation or explain a pattern of data). In “Measuring Silkworms” and “Biodiversity in the Schoolyard,” students’ responses to the different tasks can provide evidence of their understanding of the crosscutting concept of patterns. Use the BioKIDS application on your iPod to collect and record all your data and observations. The type of classroom assessment discussed in this chapter focuses upon the daily opportunities and interactions afforded to teachers and students for collecting information about studen… Ms. B: So, if I do one like that, because I haven’t seen one up here yet. It is closely tied to instruction—the assessment is embedded in a set of classroom activities. Second, experts in science learning will also be needed to ensure that knowledge from research on learning is used as a guide to what is expected of students. Like the large-scale tests they closely resemble, benchmark tests rely heavily on multiple-choice items, each of which tests a single learning objective. In this example, the students’ argument about the models plays two roles: it is an opportunity for students to defend or challenge their existing ideas, and it is an opportunity for the teacher to observe what the students are thinking and to decide that she needs to pursue the issue of what is between the particles of air. In many of these examples, listening to and engaging with other students as they discuss and defend their responses is a part of the learning process, as students work toward a classroom consensus explanation or a model based on the evidence they have collected. The NGSS performance expectations are general: they do not specify the kinds of intermediate understandings of disciplinary core ideas students may express during instruction nor do they help teachers interpret students’ emerging capabilities with science practices or their partially correct or incomplete understanding. When students begin this activity, they will just have completed a set of investigations of weathering, erosion, and deposition that are part of a curriculum on investigating Earth systems.10 Students will have had the opportunity to build physical models of these phenomena and frame hypotheses about how water will move sediment using stream tables.11 The teacher begins the formative assessment activity by projecting on a screen a question about the process of deposition designed to check students’ understanding of the activities they have completed: see Figure 4-3. In contrast, external assessments are designed or selected by districts, states, countries, or international bodies and are typically used to audit or monitor learning. In a culminating task, students present their findings about the grasslands ecosystem. “Ecosystems” (Example 8, above) is a computer-based system in which students use simulations both to learn and to demonstrate what they have learned about food webs. thinking as they move from exploring ecosystem components to interactions of those components to the way systems behave. When incorporated into classroom practice, it provides the information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. Considering the intended inference, or claim, about student learning will help curriculum developers and classroom assessment designers ensure that the tasks elicit the needed evidence. The difference is that in Task 4, the hints are removed: at the end of the unit, they are expected to show that they understand what constitutes a full explanation without a reminder. In “Movement of Water,” for example, students’ use of clickers. 1 Identify Student Strengths and Weaknesses. Instead, these assessments reflect the concepts and skills that the teacher emphasized in class, along with the teacher's clear criteria for judging students' performance. As students improve their capacity to visualize data, the data discussion then leads them to notice characteristics of organisms or populations. Effective use of the practices often requires that they be used in concert with one another, such as in supporting explanation with an argument or using mathematics to analyze data. In this chapter, we illustrate the types of assessment tasks that can be used in the classroom to meet the goals of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (National Research Council, 2012a, hereafter referred to as “the framework”) and the Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States (NGSS Lead States, 2013).
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