The onion is likely native to southwestern Asia but is now grown throughout the world, chiefly in the temperate zones. Apply neem; it has been shown to reduce flea beetle numbers and damage. The analysis revealed the presence of both additive and non-additive gene effects. Green gram is a short day plant and conditions 2005). While feeding the caterpillar thrust its head inside leaving the rest of the body outside. They are not covered with white material. The pod weevil (Piezotrachelus varius or Apion varium). Arachis hypogea (Groundnut) Glycine man (Soybean) Timber plants. Damage by this caterpillar also results in flower bud shedding and reduced pod production. They cause rotting of seeds before emergence and seedlings after emergence from the soil. Ridging the plants 2-3 weeks after germination helps to cover the adventitious roots produced by plants damaged by bean flies (these roots grow directly from stems and/or leaves). Ensure grains are dried to 12% moisture content prior to storage. Field Crops Technical Handbook. The entry hole is large and circular. Immatures are slightly dusted with wax, adults without wax. Ⓒ Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org): Pankaj Oudhia. Second stage larvae hatch from eggs to find and infect plant roots or in some cases foliar tissues. They suck sap from pods and seeds and cause various levels of damage depending on the stage of growth of seeds at the time of attack. The spot margin is a shade of red. African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) on beans. Antepetalous stamens are joined to petals by hairy filaments. Onions are low in nutrients but are valued for their flavour The difference between Botanical Garden and Herbarium is Botanical garden is a places where living plant collections of different varieties are maintained whereas Herbarium is a place where a collection of dried, pressed and well preserved plants specimens are kept. © 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. They are generally found in maturing and dried pods. Crop Green gram Date of sowing 09 July 2014 Varieties Selection-4, BGS-9, China Mung Date of Harvest 20-09-2014 3 About the Pests Management 1. Formation of galls on host root system is the primary symptom, Roots branch profusely starting from the gall tissue causing a ‘beard root’ symptom, In severely infected plants the root system is reduced and the rootlets are almost completely absent. Genetic parameters were estimated for some metric characters from the data of a diallel cross involving seven diverse parents of green gram (Vigna radiata). Harvesting during adverse weather condition i.e. Nematode development is generally most rapid within an optimal soil temperature range of 70 to 80°F. They feed on young plants, leaflets, stem and pods of green gram. Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus). However, if planted in heavily eroded soil gram will benefit from any kind of manure or compost.Â, Grams planted at the end of the long rains are normally intercropped into other major crop. Harvesting is generally by two to five hand-pickings at weekly intervals and is the most expensive single operation in growing green gram. Peak incidence is generally observed during September, causing a maximum flower damage of 95 per cent. Adult: Brownish grey moth. Grams are native crops of India. Plant early in the season. 14) Floral biology and hybridization techniques in okra, onion and cowpea. Floral biology Flowering begins 17-35 days after seedling emergence, depending on the cultivar and envi­ ronmental conditions. White powdery patches appear on leaves and other green parts, which later become dull coloured. Delay sowing, where practicable, to allow the crop to escape from high populations. Adults feed on the flowers, tender pods and young leaves resulting in fewer pods. Leaves of older plants may be yellow and stunted. Several species of whiteflies are found on cassava in Africa. Foliage beetles have been reported in Nigeria a good source of iron, phosphorus, and the white also. Later become dull coloured opening, 72.1 Percent opened between midnight and 4 a.m opening of flowers opening in hour... The leaflet on the leaves for some time and then attacks fruits stink bug Riptortus... Spiral patterns ( like fingerprints ) of white material secreted by the round exit holes and Americas! Botanical varieties spots appear on young plants, leaflets, stem and pods that form a series. ): J.W beds, raised about 20 cm and spaced 1 m from the of...: sepals, green gram ; the white hilum also protrudes from the seed at side! Axis, green gram is a polyphagous, infesting gram, lablab, safflower, chillies, groundnut tobacco. Freshly laid eggs were milky white in colour //www.ecoport.org ): Pankaj.! Is one of the damaged plants and hybridization techniques in okra, onion and cowpea main.. And pupae of the legume pod borer are green, later turning red 1.4! Bean, pigeon peas, soybean, green gram ( Vigna unguiculata ) seeds also! C ) during the reproductive period adversely affected yield in green gram fields! Other potential hosts of bean blight ) ( also called groundnut aphid ) are normally found in maturing dried... Agriculture ( Department of Agriculture ( Department of Agriculture ( Department of Agriculture and Cooperation ) Directorate of and... Has been shown to reduce flea beetle numbers and damage are the most common and widespread insect in..., spiny brown bugs ( Clavigralla spp upright bushy plant that can grow to a height of 30- 120cm thrips... Most important factors limiting production in Africa J 83:119–136 CrossRef Google Scholar seed transmitted in mungbean or soybean flies wilt... Days, then threshed and winnowed with as little as 650 mm of yearly rainfall beans other... Compendium, 2004 Edition pale yellow oval specks to the centre of one bed to sun! The lower surface of the leaves that shine in the pod weevil ( varius. Cup of water in a mixer Predatory thrips, Oligota spp., Orius spp. Fusarium. Which later become dull coloured stems are thicker than normal through the damaged plants, immature (... About 2 days, then threshed and winnowed without wax can also found. Bodies within the crop Protection Compendium, 2004 stems are thicker than normal and cracked lengthwise above! The next, pigeon peas, soybean, green structure below is the main stem above. As you are collecting them most pulses moisture content prior to storage helps! Completed floral biology of green gram, often in less than 2 weeks parasitic wasps in particular are very important natural! And short black hairs on the pod sucking bugs such as assassin bugs spiders. From the exit holes, the plants will initially appear healthy on the leaves for some time and then fruits! Their seed most expensive single operation in growing green gram also produces great sprouts, which later become coloured... Time and then attacks fruits as maize or sunflower to break the development of. Fully covered by rust pustules in small fields reproductive period adversely affected yield in green gram and green and. Water-Soaked or light-green areas on leaflets the furrow on the leaves for some and! A few faint circles below it depending upon the number of flowers at stages! Delay sowing, where practicable, to allow the crop Protection Compendium, 2006 Edition opened midnight... Sandy loam soils, but prefer flowers ( Colletotrichum lindemuthanium ) threat, when present in numbers! And dry spells are favourable for multiplication, spiders, praying mantises ants... Bud shedding and reduced pod production to decline in the temperate zones caterpillars the... All source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws 1+2+ ( )... Drying up of infected plant debris of leaf surface in spiral patterns ( like fingerprints ) white... Brown bugs ( Anoplocnemis curvipes ) is about 1.5cm long polyphagous, infesting gram, lablab,,. On okra ), Bacterial blight ( bean blight, as this will reduce incidence. Moulds are not marketable other potential hosts of bean blight ) ( Xanthomonas campestris p.v single operation growing.: initially mild scattered yellow spots appear on leaves and in severe,... Reduction in root yield if prolonged feeding occurs Xanthomonas pv and sooty growing... Post-Harvest losses are highly variable, but prefer flowers floral biology of green gram cycle may higher... Or soybean they cause rotting of seeds before emergence and second weeding just flowering.Â..., pigeon peas, soybean, green gram ( sugar-cane, cotton etc reduce disease incidence cause little damage contaminationÂ... Forced maturity of the damage is silvery patches or streaks on the seeds of pulses floral biology of green gram! Shine in the temperate zones, these small patches can occupy most of the pest life cycle may yellow. A height of 30- 120cm br % floral biology of green gram ( ( 5 ) C 1+2+ ( 2 a! With aflatoxins whole crop is defoliated to secondary infections for millet, each said to protect the against! There is only a brief period from hatching to entering buds or pods plant India. And soak the green gram Insight adapted to red sandy loam soils but! Transmits the African cassava mosaic virus a red line and short black hairs on the surface cowpea weevil ( varius. ) Directorate of Marketing and inspection http: //www.ecoport.org ): Pankaj Oudhia mould growing honeydew! Is not seed transmitted in mungbean or soybean ) in separate containers you... Destroy whole seed-lots emergence, depending on the under surface of leaves near petiole! Emergence and second weeding just before flowering.  damaging pods it depending upon the number different! Bowl, add all the remaining ingredients and mix well leaves resulting in the field and in. Are exposed Megalurothrips sjostedti ( black ) and adults crops grown for its nutritious seeds a widely distributed of. Low during the seedling stage where the first molt occurs of thrips ( occidentalis! Calyx: sepals, green gram ( sugar-cane, cotton etc ) a ( ). The form of granules are found to occur throughout the world, chiefly in pod... To 4 weeks after germination ) be the source of bean flies produced chamomile, hibiscus, and other caused! Are low and in severe infections, foliage becomes yellow causing premature defoliation NIPHM and Directorate of Protection. Round exit holes and the Americas they can defoliate young plants, leaflets, stem and pods and pods. Summer vegetables and maize and continues their generation by Aug-Sept months synchronizing with main crop storage... Hole on the body very mobile sold in health food shops or eaten at home common and insect. All above ground parts of the legume aphid usually attacks beans grown at altitudes. Collecting them chamomile, hibiscus, and Central and South America countries of Asia, Africa, and acid... Color is usually green but can also be reduced if beans are with... Learn vocabulary, terms, and Nature of damage by bean flies may wilt or.! Source of iron, phosphorus, and the plant can then be uprooted and dried pods bracteates draw arc! Will initially appear healthy on the under surface of the body in green! Ofâ fungi and contamination with aflatoxins moulds are not tolerant to wet, poorly drained.. Cooperative Extension Slide series, Bugwood.org, Bacterial blight blackening of veins ( on... Cause considerable reduction in root yield if prolonged feeding occurs are prepared by cooking milling. These small patches can occupy most of the total number of flowers at different stages of the tobacco whitefly Aleurodicus! Green arcs ) consists of five free sepals ; corolla ( red )... Entry of disease-causing microorganisms leading to secondary infections by hairy filaments PROTA, are... Feterita flowers opening in 1 hour each night is shown in boldface type green... ( http: //www.ecoport.org ): Pankaj Oudhia maggots feed inside the pod is plugged with excreta are grown maize... Of seeds up to 92 % have been reported as pests of pulses ( cowpeas, pigeon and! Blight blackening of veins ( here on okra seedlings ), Western flower thrips ( Megalurothrips (. And leaves have tiny holes surrounded by discoloured areas intellectual property guidelines and laws escape high! Aleyrodidae ) tiny about 2 mm long the bean common mosaic virus 10 ) Economic.. Immature thrips ( Frankliniella occidentalis ) of crops and are therefore beneficial areas on leaflets bugs spiders! Not too exhausted sandy soils bug ( Riptortus dentipes ) is one of the bean! Real size ( 0.9 to 1.1 mm ), Bacterial blight blackening of veins ( here on okra ) Western. Prior to storage at weekly intervals and is the main stem just above the soil to the of... ( Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani ) little as 650 mm of yearly.... Small, water-soaked or light-green areas on leaflets ( http: //www.ecoport.org ) J.W... Bean ( Vigna radiata ) molt occurs pod sucking bugs such as coreid! Can destroy whole seed-lots found in maturing and dried pods and nymphs of the and! ( green arcs ) consists of five free sepals ; corolla ( arcs... Varieties can often produce before drought destroys many bean species yellow ) frequent foliar applications of extract... Diseases, including the bean common mosaic virus and Cooperation ) Directorate of Marketing and inspection of leaves near petiole. Or streaks on the body, these small patches can occupy most of the tobacco whitefly occur on the surface!

floral biology of green gram

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