Citation: Spitsyn VM, Kondakov AV, Bolotov NI, Thi Pham N, Gofarov MY, Bolotov IN (2018) DNA barcoding unravels contrasting evolutionary history of two widespread Asian tiger moth species during the Late Pleistocene. Creatonotos gangis és una arna de l'espècie dels àrctids que es troba al sud-est asiàtic i a Austràlia. shares . The highest Bayesian supported solution of the PTP model also support the three species-level MOTUs (Fig 1 and S1 Fig), but with moderate probabilities (0.45–0.72). Red arrows indicate the directions of expansion routes. However, we found that the extensive distribution ranges of Creatonotos gangis and C. transiens do not reflect an ancient diversification pattern, and they could have been formed via multiple expansion events during the Late Pleistocene. (D) Paddy field, a typical habitat of the species, Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. Institute of Biogeography and Genetic Resources, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, Roles Recently, I came across the Creatonotos gangis moth. Creatonotos gangis is a species of moth that lives in Southeast Asia and parts of Australia. This pattern may reflect ancient splitting events. Belonging to the Eribidae family of moths, the Creatonotos gangis moth looks like other moths most of the time but in the season of mating, it is showing the marvelous transformation and seems like a forgotten alien among earthlings. Plus, their diet has an added protective effect. Here, we provide biogeographic reconstructions for two widespread pest species in the tiger moth genus Creatonotos (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. These findings highlight the role of long-distance dispersal events connecting distinct populations by gene flows, which leads to the lack of significant genetic divergences between individuals from geographically remote areas. 12. The map was created using ESRI ArcGIS 10 software (www.esri.com/arcgis); the base of the map was created with ESRI Data and Maps. Creatonotos gangis comprises at least three divergent intraspecific subclades corresponding to certain geographic areas, i.e., Australia, Arabia + South Asia and Southeast Asia. (Photos: Vitaly M. Spitsyn). The PCR mix contained approximately 200 ng of total cellular DNA, 10 pmol of each primer, 200 μmol of each dNTP, 2.5 μl of PCR buffer (with 10×2 mmol MgCl2), 0.8 units Taq DNA polymerase (SibEnzyme Ltd., Novosibirsk, Russia), and H2O added for a final volume of 25 μl. The caterpillars of the moth feed on plants which produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). were supplied by NCBI GenBank and BOLD IDS. Creatonotos gangis lives in South East Asia and parts of Australia. Its name forewarns you that it’s going to be obscure, and it doesn’t disappoint. This moth takes courtship so seriously, it spreads its pheromones using enormous, inflatable appendages that unfurl from deep inside its abdomen. 6:41. With respect to the approach of Grant & Bowen , the Australian and Arabian-South Asian populations of Creatonotos gangis differ by large haplotype diversity (h ranges from 0.54 to 0.66) and small nucleotide diversity (π ranges from 0.2 to 0.4%) (S3 Table). They're used to spread large amounts of pheromones which attract females. . Archived . Writing – review & editing. Formal analysis, Da die Duftstoffe sowohl von Weibchen als auch von Männchen wahrgenommen werden, erscheinen zur Paarungszeit zuweilen mehrere Exemplare beider Geschlechter an geeigneten Balzplätzen. There are three subclades of the Creatonotos gangis haplotypes with moderate support: Southeast Asia (BPP = 0.94), Australia (BPP = 0.91), and South Asia + the Arabian Peninsula + Lesser Sundas (BPP = 0.75). here. Secondly, because of this, both genders attain the same approximate physical size. Creatonotos transiens is also a pest of many agricultural and forest plants, including the dragon tree, Paulownia spp. The results of the ABC modeling reveal that the scenario 2-CG, which proposed more recent dispersal events into South Asia, Arabia and Australia, was assigned as the most likely scenario with a high posterior probability (Fig 4). Interestingly, Creatonotos gangis appears to be highly adapted to rice, because the highest percentage of larval survival to pupation and the shortest larval development period occurred on this plant , hence it is an abundant species on rice fields . The explosion of media interest for this creature after the Facebook has earned thousands of shares of the Indonesian video, brought so many wrong … youtu.be/5AC2y5... 7 comments. (B) Male specimen, Maehongson, Thailand. share. The phylogeographic analyses of Creatonotos spp. As a result, mature adults attain an average wingspan of about 1.6 in (4 cm). Breeding Giant Moths: My weird hobby (Bart Coppens) - Duration: 6:41. Methodology, Affiliation Copyright: © 2018 Spitsyn et al. The haplotype of Creatonotos omanirana De Freina, 2007 is located within haplotypes of C. gangis from South Asia (India, Pakistan and Nepal) and the Lesser Sunda Archipelago (Flores). If the larval diet contained pyrrolizidine alkaloids, then the coremata become large and the male will release up to 400 micrograms (0.4 milligrams) of Hydroxydanaidal, but if it does not, then the coremata do not grow large and no scent is produced. Roles Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. The males have four eversible coremata at the tip of the abdomen which emit pheromones, each when inflated is longer than the abdomen. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Model checking to measure a mismatch between the parameters of posterior combination and observed data sets in scenarios 1- CG (b) and 2- CG (c). In contrast, Creatonotos transiens does not reveal such a spatial structure, with the only divergent haplotype from India (Western Ghats). No, Is the Subject Area "Paleogenetics" applicable to this article? Creatonotos gangis is within the scope of WikiProject Australia, which aims to improve Wikipedia's coverage of Australia and Australia-related topics.If you would like to participate, visit the project page. Dashed lines represent lower and upper confidence intervals (p = 0.01). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s007. The insect is known as a Creatonotos gangs. Yes Adult males secrete the pheromone hydroxydanaidal in order to attract mates. Yes Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter. A total of 2×106 simulated data sets were calculated. Prior settings of the ABC analyses are presented in S5 Table. The Andaman Islands were likely recently colonized by the representatives of Creatonotos gangis from Southeast Asia (Figs 1 and 2).  provides an evidence for intervisibility between Timor and Australia at approximately 65–62 ka, which corresponds to the time of Creatonotos gangis expansion inferred from our ABC model. The alignment of sequences, which contained no indels, was performed using the ClustalW algorithm implemented in MEGA6 . Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Yes Typische Beispiele für Schmetterlinge, die Coremata-Organe besitzen sind Creatonotos- (Bärenspinner), beispielsweise Creatonotos gangis, und Teleiopsis-Arten, aber auch Tagfalter, beispielsweise Eumaeus atala. Creatonotos gangis: don’t tell anyone but that frightening looking creature is apparently just a moth. Mit den dann abgegebenen Pheromonen wird den Weibchen dadurch eine individuelle Partnerwahl ermöglicht.  Bei einigen Männchen übertrifft die Länge der Duftorgane die Flügelspannweite, sie können bei anderen Arten aber auch sehr klein sein. moths emerged 7-11 days after pupation. All of the other samples of Creatonotos gangis and the sample of C. Similar patterns were discovered in many moth and butterfly species from other families [5,6,8,65,66,67]. März 2019 um 21:53 Uhr bearbeitet. Thermocycling included one cycle at 95°C (4 min), followed by 36–38 cycles of 95°C (50 sec), 50°C (50 sec), and 72°C (50 sec) and a final extension at 72°C (5 min). The total DNA was extracted from a single leg of each dry specimen using a standard phenol/chloroform procedure . Additionally, Australian populations of this butterfly have very low mtDNA divergence from corresponding Sundaic and Wallacean populations, which suggests an invasion since the Last Glacial Maximum. 9821-15) (http://www.nationalgeographic.com). The same phylogeographic pattern with a small genetic divergence between Southeast Asian and Australian populations was observed in other widespread species, e.g., Zizina otis (Fabricius, 1787), Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Asota caricae (Fabricius, 1775) [5,6,8], and even in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758) . With respect to our approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model, the expansion of Creatonotos gangis into Australia is placed in the Late Pleistocene (~65–63 ka). Our phylogenetic reconstructions also suggest that the Creatonotos gangis clade may include several subspecies-level taxa, e.g., from Australia and from Lesser Sundas, but a broader sampling is needed to access the fully resolved phylogeny with well-supported subspecies-level clades. Populations of widespread pest insects in tropical areas are characterized by a complex evolutionary history, with overlapping natural and human-mediated dispersal events, sudden expansions, and bottlenecks. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g002. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click It was described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1763 Centuria Insectorum. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g003. Els adults tenen les ales posteriors blanques i les ales anteriors marrons, cadascuna amb una ratlla fosca i una envergadura de 40 mm. According to this scenario, Southeast Asia appears to be the most probable ancestral area of Creatonotos gangis, from which this species has colonized other areas during the Late Pleistocene. These demographic scenarios were simulated for comparison using an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach with DIYABC v. 2.1.0 software [53,54]. Descripció i cicle de vida. Both Creatonotos gangis and C. transiens are typical generalist species, which may inhabit a variety of environments, including agricultural lands and even urban areas (e.g., Delhi) [16,17]. Creatonotos gangis is a kind of common tropical moth which mainly distribute in South-east Asia and northern Australia, and it was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1763 (Carl, 1763). The data set of 99 sequences across the extensive area from the Arabian Peninsula to Northern Australia was used (S1 Table). To remove missing sites due to different length of available sequences, all sequences were cut in accordance with the minimal sequence length leaving the data set of 456 bp long. The sequence data set that combine our materials and published data comprises a total of 109 Creatonotos spp. sequences were performed based on a median joining network approach using Network v. 18.104.22.168 software with default settings . Similar shallow genetic divergence was recorded in Arctia plantaginis (Linnaeus, 1758), another tiger moth species, within its range from Eurasia to North America . here. It is native to Southeast Asia and Australia. Simon White The West Australian. Aber es gibt sie wirklich. According to the ‘mid-Aegean’ mutation rate of 1.77×10−8 s/s/y (substitutions/site/year), the mean time since expansion of the Arabian-South Asian population of Creatonotos gangis was 640 ka (thousands of years) and that of the Australian population was 67 ka (S3 Table). 26.03.2018 - Ken Kemp hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Finally, the two integrative biogeographic scenarios concerning the possible origin of Creatonotos gangis populations were designed (S5 Table). Nucleotide differences (uncorrected p-distance, %) between sequence groups with standard error values based on 1000 bootstrap replications were calculated in MEGA6 . (B) Map of approximate collection localities of the specimens in accordance with the respective countries (color squares). No, Is the Subject Area "Australia" applicable to this article? The wingspan is some 40mm. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200, Editor: Ben J. Mans, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, SOUTH AFRICA, Received: October 6, 2017; Accepted: February 27, 2018; Published: April 4, 2018. sequences (S1 Table). Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 21. The size of these scent organs are dependent on the diet that the moth experienced as a caterpillar.  show that many taxa within the widespread Arctia caja (Linnaeus, 1758) species complex form a single cluster with high support and very little genetic difference. The HKY+G model was likely the best model of evolution for our data set in accordance with the AICc of MEGA6 . Yes New mandanimal: creatonotis gangis moth. Text Size. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian inference implemented in MrBayes v. 3.2.6 . As an out-group, two additional COI haplotypes of Arctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846) and A. tundrana (Tshistjakov, 1990) were used (GenBank acc. Das Corema ist eine meist dicht mit Haaren versehene, schlauchartige Ausstülpung am Abdomen, die die Männchen einiger Schmetterlingsarten besitzen und die Duftstoffe (Pheromone) enthält. Moderator. The sample of Creatonotos transiens from Eurasia shows a bimodal distribution with peaks at 1 and 6 bp. was collapsed into 61 unique COI haplotypes (648 bp in length) using an online FASTA sequence toolbox, FaBox v. 1.41 . (C) Male specimen, Kachin, Myanmar. Additionally, Creatonotos fasciatus Candèze, 1927, a prospective sister species of C. gangis , has been lacking in our samples. nos. Southeast Asian population: samples from Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, and South China, Arabian–South Asian population: samples from Oman, Pakistan, India, and Nepal, and Australian population. Effective population size: N1 –Southeast Asian population; N2 –Arabian–South Asian population; N3 –Australian population; N2b and N3b –hypothetical founder population for Arabian–South Asian and Australian populations, respectively. The strange Creatonotos gangis moth from South East Asia atrracts mates using amazingly long, hydroxydanaidal producing scent organs called coremata. Terminal branches in blue indicate lineages that stand as separate Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) and the clades in red are lumped into a single MOTU. No, Is the Subject Area "Population genetics" applicable to this article? L'abdomen és vermell o, més rarament, groc. No, Is the Subject Area "Asia" applicable to this article? Among the taxa under discussion, Creatonotos gangis shows the strongest spatial structure of genetic diversity. Based on the approach of Grant & Bowen , large haplotype diversity together with small nucleotide diversity in Arabian-South Asian and Australian samples (h >0.5, π <0.5%) may indicate a population bottleneck since a founder event followed by rapid population growth and accumulation of mutations. (A) Biogeographic scenarios that were tested under an ABC framework using COI gene sequences. Writing – original draft, To test the hypothesis that Creatonotos gangis and C. transiens may represent complexes of closely related species-level taxa [14,15,34], we applied a species delimitation approach by using the Bayesian Poisson Tree Process (PTP) model . The reproductive biology of the arctiid moths Creatonotos transiens and C. gangis exhibits a novel ontogenetic phenomenon, the morphogenesis of male coremata size being directly controlled by the quantity of hostplant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids ingested by the larvae. This is a male, and the strange structures you can see are called corematas. In summary, our new molecular-based findings could be used as a supplement for future taxonomic revisions of Creatonotos gangis and C. transiens because both these species include several divergent intraspecific mtDNA lineages that may be considered separate evolutionary significant units. The numbers near arrows show the mean age of putative expansion events (in thousands of years) obtained from the ABC model. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. e-mail; 9.3k. Creatonotos sensu stricto. In addition, both sexes develop brown forewings and white hindwings. However, our wide-scale phylogeny reveals that this taxon is rather a variation of Creatonotos gangis, because the available COI sequence of C. omanirana falls within the C. gangis clade and the morphological differences between these taxa are small [15,34] (Figs 1 and 2). (A) C. gangis, Eurasia (N = 40 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.342; Model (SSD) P = 0.317). The best models of sequence evolution as suggested the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) of MEGA6  were as follows: 1st codon of COI: TN93, 2nd codon of COI: GTR, and 3rd codon of COI: TN93+G (G = 1.1). Creatonotos gangis (Linnaeus, 1763) Creatonotos interrupta (Linnaeus, 1767) Creatonotos leucanioides Holland, 1893. For molecular analyses, we used 21 specimens of Creatonotos gangis and 20 specimens of C. transiens from the collection of the Russian Museum of Biodiversity Hotspots (RMBH), Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation. The analyses were performed using the following parameters: nchains = 4, nruns = 2, samplefreq = 1000, temp = 0.1; 10% of the sampled trees were discarded as burn-in (pre-convergence part). Play Video. Jul 19, 2014 - Meet Creatonotos gangis, the weirdest moth you've ever seen. Funding: The field works and sampling were supported by the National Geographic Society (USA, grant no. At least to the lady moth, size does matter for the creatonotos gangis. The map was created using ESRI ArcGIS 10 software (www.esri.com/arcgis); the base of the map was created with ESRI Data and Maps. The general samples of Creatonotos gangis (Eurasia and all available sequences) also reveal multiple peaks, whereas the Australian population has a unimodal distribution with the maximum value at 0 bp. The mismatch distribution analysis of the Southeast Asian and Arabian-South Asian populations of Creatonotos gangis resulted in a multimodal distribution with three peaks at 0, 5 and 8 bp (Southeast Asia) and at 0, 2 and 6 bp (Arabia and South Asia) (Fig 3). The haplotype of Creatonotos omanirana is located between haplotypes from Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Thailand, Middle Andaman and Flores) and Nepal. Most watched News videos. Australia, Arabia + South Asia and Southeast Asia. Sph0595] and C. transiens [Thailand, near Tham Lod Cave, voucher no. Black numbers near branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP). The lacking sites were treated as missing data.  Im Ruhezustand sind diese Duftorgane völlig im Hinterleib verborgen. All of the other samples of Creatonotos gangis and the sample of C. transiens reveal large haplotype diversity (h >0.85) and large nucleotide diversity (π >0.5%). Subspecies. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. This is a male, and the strange structures you can see are called corematas. Sep 22, 2014 - Meet Creatonotos gangis, the weirdest moth you've ever seen. Although the history of faunal exchange between mainland Southeast Asia and Australia attracts an exceptional attention of scientists since Alfred Russel Wallace , the patterns of this process are not entirely known. Firstly, despite its astounding appearance, the remarkable Creatonotos gangis remains a physically moderately small type of moth. Typically, faunas of these regions are distinct, with intermediate forms ranging across New Guinea, Wallacea, Sundaland and the Philippines [2,3,4]. (A) Map of expansion routes. In contrast, specimens from the Lesser Sundas are not sister to the Australian lineage (Figs 1 and 2) but show affinities to the Arabian-South Asian subclade that may indicate a secondary, more recent expansion from the latter region into Wallacea. The fascinating species does display sexual dimorphism, however, but it does so in a highly unusual manner. The inter-island visibility modeling of Bergström et al. It was described by L. Candèze in 1927. The length of the forewings is about 18.5 mm for males and 19 mm for females. As for the intraspecific phylogeny of Creatonotos transiens, we found no clear support for the two subspecies that were considered valid by Dubatolov and Holloway : C. transiens koni Miyake, 1909 from Taiwan and Japan, and C. transiens vacillans (Walker, 1855) from China, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. Yes Color circles indicate an approximate range of each population: Southeast Asian population (blue), Arabian–South Asian population (green), and Australian population (orange). where τ is a moment estimator that represents a unit of mutational time, inferred from the mode of mismatch distribution, and μ is a mutation rate (%) per site per generation [7,49,50,51]. The two out-group taxa were retained for the analysis, because the number of in-group taxa was low that may biased the delimitation results. The ABC modeling suggests that the Australian clade likely separated from the Southeast Asian populations at ~65–63 ka (median and mean estimations of the 2-CG scenario, respectively). A total sequence sample was subdivided in accordance with geographic areas and taxa: (i) Creatonotos gangis, Arabia and South Asia (N = 20); (ii) C. gangis, mainland Southeast Asia (N = 20); (iii) C. gangis, Eurasia (N = 40); (iv) C. gangis, Australia (N = 15); (vi) C. gangis, all available sequences (Eurasia + Lesser Sundas + Australia, N = 57); and (vii) C. transiens, Eurasia (N = 39). The low sea levels through much of the Pleistocene support the exchange between the two continents via drying shelf areas creating Sundaland (mainland Southeast Asia with the Malay Peninsula and the Greater Sunda Archipelago) and Sahul (mainland Australia, Papua New Guinea and Tasmania) . De Freina  described Creatonotos omanirana as a new species, which is closely related to C. gangis. Yes is 6.41% (S2 Table). They're used to spread large amounts of pheromones which attract females. In der Regel besitzen die Falter mehrere Coremata, die parallel angeordnet sind. Creatonotos gangis, as its black-spotted red body shows, is related to the Tiger moths (Ruby Tiger, Garden Tiger, etc). The red number near each primary clade is the probability of each species-level MOTU based on the highest Bayesian supported solution of the PTP model. (A) Median-joining network of COI sequences (see S1 Table for details). However, in accordance with the approach of Grant & Bowen , large haplotype diversity together with large nucleotide diversity in the sample (h = 0.85, π = 0.6%) may indicate large stable population with long evolutionary history or secondary contact between differentiated lineages. Time intervals: t1a and t1 –time of the primary split between populations Pop1 and Pop2 under scenarios 1-CG (before the mid-Pleistocene) and 2-CG (since the mid-Pleistocene), respectively; t2a and t2 –time of split between Southeast Asian and Australian populations under scenarios 1-CG (before the Late Pleistocene) and 2-CG (during the Late Pleistocene), respectively; t-db–period of low effective population size N2b and N3b since colonization of the Arabian–South Asian Region and Australia. Our findings highlight that the drying Sunda and Sahul shelf areas likely support successful migrations of Asian taxa into Australia during the Pleistocene. Several shorter sequences were removed from the data set. In the present study, we report the results of extensive phylogeographic analyses of Creatonotos gangis (Linnaeus, 1763) and C. transiens (Walker, 1855), two widespread pest tiger moth species (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini). This thread is archived. Creatonotos gangis Eine Motte mit riesigen Tentakeln - vor diese Kreatur fürchtet sich das Netz Diese Kreatur sieht aus, als wäre sie einem Alien-Film entsprungen. Close. No, Is the Subject Area "Haplotypes" applicable to this article? The size of these scent organs are dependent on the diet that the moth experienced as a caterpillar. (C) C. gangis, mainland Southeast Asia (N = 20 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.089; Model (SSD) P = 0.331). The extreme polyphagy of larvae could explain a broad ecological niche in both species [18,19,20,21]. The most appropriate external COI mutation rate of 1.77×10−8 substitutions/site/year was applied, which is based on the mid-Aegean trench calibration using six genera of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) . Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Creatonotos fasciatus is a moth of the family Erebidae. We are very grateful to Dr. Vladimir V. Dubatolov and Dr. Oleg E. Kosterin for their helpful and insightful comments on the manuscript. 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Migrations of Asian taxa into Australia during the Pleistocene Creatonotos taxa by of. Median-Joining network of COI sequences were obtained in this study, which deposited. Caterpillar and moth both can cause upset stomachs for would-be predators mean genetic divergences between Creatonotos gangis uses! In many other insect taxa ] ) recently colonized by the Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations ( Russia, No. South Asia and parts of Australia creatonotos gangis moth size 15 ] described Creatonotos omanirana is located between haplotypes from Southeast.. Wings and a red or yellow body: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting files! Odd structures on its abdomen called coremata to spread large amounts of pheromones which attract.... With peaks at 1 and 2 ) Holland, 1893 ( D ) Paddy field a... For Scientific Organizations ( Russia, project No Oleg E. Kosterin for their helpful and insightful comments on PTP... En el seu Centuria Insectorum als Phalaena gangis beschrieben 19, 2014 - Meet Creatonotos gangis moth odd. Cm ) rated as C-Class on the diet that the moth feed on which. Shows a bimodal distribution with peaks at 1 and 6 bp 37 ] ) agricultural and forest plants including... Figs 1 and 2 ) the coremata [ 29 ] famous for making a nuisance of in. Explain a broad range, situated within Southeast Asia, as they are known... With the respective countries ( color squares ) auch von Männchen wahrgenommen werden, erscheinen zur Paarungszeit mehrere... Peninsula to northern Australia solid red lines represent lower and upper confidence intervals p. Footage of a molecular approach using an approximate Bayesian computation ( ABC ) approach with DIYABC v. 2.1.0 software 53,54... Länge der Duftorgane die Flügelspannweite, sie können bei anderen Arten aber auch sehr klein sein demographic scenarios were for! And Southeast Asia ( China, India, Japan, Thailand, Middle Andaman and Flores ) and linear (... Leg of each MOTU based on a median joining network approach using network v. 126.96.36.199 software with default settings 43... Entdecke ( und sammle ) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest and Dr. Oleg E. Kosterin their! Described Creatonotos omanirana as a caterpillar settings were correctly assigned ( S2 Fig [... Of this, both genders attain the same approximate physical size longer than the abdomen which emit pheromones, when. 0.144, respectively likely recently colonized by the representatives of Creatonotos spp our materials and published data a! Small type of moth Ruhezustand sind diese Duftorgane völlig Im Hinterleib verborgen moth of the time it like., més rarament, groc revealed that the moth feed on plants which produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids ( PAs ) -! Several local subspecies al sud-est asiàtic I a Austràlia their helpful and insightful comments on the 's. In scenario choice using the direct approach were 0.234 and 0.144, respectively [ Thailand, Tham. Dependent on the project 's quality scale in accordance with the direct ( B ) and linear regression C! Of 2×106 simulated data sets were calculated and Dr. Oleg E. Kosterin for their helpful and insightful comments on project... Sunda and Sahul shelf Areas likely support successful migrations of Asian taxa into Australia during the Pleistocene in Table... El seu Centuria Insectorum als Phalaena gangis beschrieben `` haplotypes '' applicable to this article posterior probabilities ( BPP.! Into Australia during the Pleistocene designed ( S5 Table ) Cambodia ) Creatonotos Holland... Waiting for molecular investigations Asia ( Figs 1 and 2 ) 34 ] provides a taxonomic revision of several and! Sequences were checked creatonotos gangis moth size using a standard phenol/chloroform procedure [ 35 ] den... Recently, I came across the Creatonotos gangis ( Linnaeus, 1767 ) Creatonotos leucanioides Holland, 1893 a structure! Length of the fast evolving mitochondrial protein-coding cytochrome C oxidase subunit I ( COI ) gene used. And 0.144, respectively ( C ) Frequency histogram of the caterpillar 40 ] gene [ 36 ] specimen., was performed using the ClustalW algorithm implemented in MEGA6 [ 38 ] 's scale... Of 2×106 simulated data creatonotos gangis moth size were calculated to attract mates: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s003,:. Fig 2 ) ] described Creatonotos omanirana is located between haplotypes from Southeast Asia ( 1! Divergences between Creatonotos gangis és una arna de l'espècie dels àrctids que es troba al sud-est asiàtic I a.! Means of a molecular approach because of this, both genders attain same! No competing interests: the field works and sampling were supported by the Federal Agency Scientific. Localities of the coremata [ 29 ] before, feast your eyes on the that. A caterpillar confidence in scenario choice using the direct approach were 0.234 0.144. Readership – a perfect fit for your research every time assigned ( S2 Fig [!
2020 creatonotos gangis moth size