<>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(�� D i g i t a l C o m m o n s @ U n i v e r s i t y o f \n N e b r a s k a - L i n c o l n)/Rect[72.0 650.625 428.9531 669.375]/StructParent 1/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> Furthermore, it is to note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study. <>stream [228 0 R 229 0 R 230 0 R 231 0 R 232 0 R 233 0 R 234 0 R] Protein contents of a typical duckweed may be as high as up to 45% of the total dry mass of plants. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. 5 Threshold toxicity 4 Growth index (-) 3 2 Minimal growth 1 0 0 0. 229 0 obj Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. Test No. There are strong theoretical reasons that support the idea that environmental fluctuations matter when studying ecological systems. The Duckweed Experiment: Effects of Lowering Light Intensity on the Rate of Per Capita Growth of Lemna Minor 1542 Words | 7 Pages. 0000001396 00000 n %%EOF Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. 228 0 obj }�W�>��|%8�ޞ�`ٯX�U}�S��(P�p4 ���%(������`l$�4��H ��Q�������dll� �0 ���0��8-*� Use of aquatic plants such as duckweed, water hyacinth and water lettuce etc. Lemna minor: University of Toronto Culture Collection (UTCC) 490 Footnote 13 and 492 Footnote 14. Once this number is attained, the growth rate slows (b), and the graph approaches a horizontal line whose y value is the carrying capacity (K). Duckweed has tiny, green leaves that float on the surface of the water or just below it, the plant is flowering but the blooms are inconsequential.Duckweed is one of the smallest flowering plants in the world! All experiments during this study were conducted within the premises of Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan where I am pursuing my doctoral degree (33° 38′ 41″ N, 72° 59′ 22″ E). Based on these results, Cu concentration of 0. 0000003375 00000 n / Hattink, J ; Wolterbeek, HT . Assimilation of nitrogen by duckweed fronds and roots appears to be the primary mechanism of nitrogen fixation in plant. 234 0 obj Furthermore, a chemical analysis was performed using the standard methods of American Public Health Association [30]. Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. rapid growth rate (doubling time of 1–4 d) (Blaise & Férard, 2005), high sensitivity to toxicants even at a low loads (Henke et al., 2011; Böcük et al., 2013; Wu & Zhang, 2013), and easy of both cultivation and harvest. endobj The potential method for leachate treatment is determined by many factors such as, current waste disposal practices, geographical location of landfill/dumpsites, local weather pattern, leachate composition and economic concerns of leachate treatment [10]. 0000001909 00000 n endobj Results reveal that compared to synthetic leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD and nutrients more efficiently from dumpsite leachate. High rates of nitrification and denitrification processes resulted by large population of respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen from dumpsite leachate. endobj Lemna minor The effects of temperature on the growth and development of Lemna minor in the open have been studied in the east of Scotland by means of four water baths constructed to maintain constant water temperatures of 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, and 27.5 °C when subjected to natural insolation. Growth rate of Lemna minor as a function of phosphate concentration in water. At present in view of the implementation of stringent leachate discharge standards worldwide, it has become a major research focus to explore the various methods of leachate treatment [8]. Under axenic conditions, frond proliferation of L. minor and Lan. In synthetic leachate a maximum growth rate of 7.03 ± 1.25 g m-2 day-1 was recorded during all tests whereas, at dumpsite leachate maximum growth rate of duckweed was 4.87 g m-2 day-1. Data curation, endobj Yes It is evident from the comparison of mass balance that duckweed absorbed larger amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into its biomass from synthetic leachate as compared to the absorption of these nutrients from dumpsite leachate under similar conditions (Fig 2). Analysis of metal concentration in water showed that Lemna minor was responsible … P=X�Kp�u�.�J������e? 0000001984 00000 n Dried mass of duckweed was ground with the help of a mortar and pestle and then a plant extract was prepared for analysis of TKN and TP contents. Despite highly significant relationships between the growth rate of L. minor and concentrations of dissolved nutrients, each of the regressions alone explained a relatively small percentage of growth rate variability ( R 2 = 0.13, 0.21 and 0.17 for the respective regressions of L. minor growth rate on N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 and … In view of the complex chemical composition of dumpsite leachate, it was difficult to prepare synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition. This study provides the comparison of duckweed performance (in terms of growth and nutrient removal efficiency) on synthetic and dumpsite leachate under controlled (artificial) and natural climatic conditions respectively. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(Environmental Sciences Commons)/Rect[137.2383 197.932 292.0967 209.6508]/StructParent 6/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> (��~�źl�]U�O��?b�����������`�%@c�s���6�I���ҭW�Fyy��vu�^]�xe endobj Duckweed population will receed in colder months. The results showed that copper inhibited Lemna growth at concentrations ≥ 0.3 mg/L. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(Environmental Studies Program)/Rect[385.8066 612.5547 540.0 625.4453]/StructParent 4/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> No, Is the Subject Area "Ponds" applicable to this article? The acceptable pH range is 5 to 9, but better growth is obtained in the pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(�� \n h t t p s : / / d i g i t a l c o m m o n s . Yes Lemna minor, or duckweed, is a small, free floating, aquatic plant capable of living in standing or slow moving water. Nitrification and denitrification processes contributes for 50% of nitrogen removal from wastewater [37]. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistix-8.1 and MS excel software. Another study reported the phosphorous uptake of 13 to 58 mg P m-2 d-1 and revealed that phosphorous uptake by duckweed was dependent on nitrogen concentration and depth of the growth pond [25]. endobj Lemna minor NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Composition of typical leachate is highly variable containing large amounts of pollutants and nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, heavy metals, and chlorinated organic and inorganic salts [3, 4]. Growth Inhibition Test This Test Guideline is designed to assess the toxicity of substances to freshwater aquatic plants of the genus Lemna (duckweed). 0000008671 00000 n 4 0. It is a simple plant having no stem or leaves. endobj Citation: Iqbal J, Javed A, Baig MA (2019) Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (lemna minor) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate under artificial and natural conditions. Various studies report a variable amount of nitrogen absorbed by duckweed. 231 0 obj During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 mL plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. This type of curve is called an S-curve (or sigmoidal curve, after the Greek word for the letter 2), for its shape. 1). The flowers are exceptionally small and rarely seen. We are also thankful to Water and Wastewater Laboratory at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan for providing technical support to conduct this research. Analysis of metal concentration in water showed that Lemna minor was responsible … Table 2.1 Interlaboratory comparison of Lemna growth in different media Species Medium Growth rate Doubling No. Department of Environment and Energy Management, College of Business Management, Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, Affiliation 0000002983 00000 n 4. This study provides the comparison of duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and its efficiency to remove COD and N & P from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. Growth rate of Lemna minor as a function of phosphate concentration in water. The results showed that copper inhibited Lemna growth at concentrations ≥ 0.3 mg/L. gibba L. associated in the communityLemnetum gibbae (W. Koch 1954) Miyawaki et Tx. At 0.2 mg/L, the final biomass was approximately four times greater than the initial biomass. Under favorable climatic conditions and nutrient balance in growth media, Lemna minor can double its biomass within two days [18]. If Lemna is placed on water, there is a reduction in the rate constants of synthesis of protein and an increase (3- to 6-fold) in the rate constant of degradation. Nitrogen is fixed as protein in duckweed biomass [20]. Lemna minor, the so-called common duckweed, is a model system of these aquatic plants for ecotoxicological bioassays, genetic transformation tools and industrial applications. 6 Copper (mg/L) 0. Seasonal growth of duckweed ranges from 3 to 9.5 tons/ac-year [31] whereas, the maximum yield of 17–25 tons/ac-year is also reported [32]. Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density [36]. Probably, because Lemna generations overlap in many populations, Lemna should have a growth rate superior to most of the other organisms that are submitted to important environmental resistance (death). Yes Materials and Methods Experimental System . About 60 mg of fresh mass of duckweed was grown on 250 ml leachate at an internal depth of 9.5 cm. x��X�n#7��W��fw@0���L�D� c68��'����G�7Rj��d;Ă����W���j������/�juux������}�������춍N�l�̈́x#gۇ�c!��Ze����O0&���y?����89�{�m�~��޾ڵ��zshd;��Y������SK����͊��(y�~k�q�����6+&�� w�%�q%�Do�k�q����3,�$I�O��1�q��fu�l���������7w�~A��3U^j܌�eȍF�;�†�!�{|�ptG�p��A9s����*�g�W>�ǝ*�ȅ+9\�\�y�9(�ų!�Wvf�/��&��5�k����4bXx�|G�0x�fJ������ᇆ@��Yx��oa���+y�k�4�(m�����2�n�h�:������Q�/�m-��B)`������� Principle. Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. Many synthetic mixtures of amino acids are unable to support growth. Abstract. In conclusion, many factors such as microbial activities, algal growth and natural decomposition also contribute to nitrogen and phosphorous removal from leachate in addition to absorption by duckweed under the natural duckweed-leachate system. 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Of biological research staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the growth rate ( ). From dumpsite leachate analysis synthetic leachate under artificial conditions, frond proliferation of L. minor and Landoltia punctata, been... Similar composition compared to nitrogen, the harvested duckweed is very small for optimum plant growth [ 24.. Study are given in table 3. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003 of plants Band of Cherokee Indians fronds... 23 ] on synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition understood when environmental variability is included found nitrate. That must be used in this biological test method 43 4.4 usual maximum size in aquariums 0. Using the standard methods of American Public health Association [ 30 ] considered! Reproduce sexually through seeding, although this type of reproduction is rare mixtures of amino acids unable! The initial biomass and COD of synthetic leachate manuscript and its Effect growth! 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2020 lemna minor growth rate