Student is provided with a question and is asked to construct a scientific explanation (no guides). The exact instructions for Task 2 appear in Figure 4-5. given the definitions of relevant terms. The techniques are mostly simple, non-graded, anonymous, in-class activities that give both you and your students useful feedback on the teaching-learning process. Figure 4-9 shows a model of the characteristics of and changes in ecosystems as it would appear on the screen. At the same time, they note that a key function of self-documentation is to “elicit and make visible students’ everyday expertise” relevant to the unit content (Tzou and Bell, 2010, p. 1136). That system should be intelligible and usable in practice: it cannot be so elaborate that teachers find it difficult to use in order to understand student thinking during instruction. “Ecosystems” (Example 8, above) is a computer-based system in which students use simulations both to learn and to demonstrate what they have learned about food webs. • The purpose of the instruction • What the instructor wants to learn from the assessment Knowing which assessment to use can save valuable time. 3The particular combinations in the examples may not be the same as NGSS examples at that grade level, but each of these examples of classroom assessment involves integrated knowledge of the same general type as the NGSS performance expectations. They are typically given at a time that is determined by administrators, rather than by the classroom teacher. Classroom assessment involves teachers investigating what and how their students are learning as teaching takes place, typically through short questions given out at the end of each class, as opposed to seeing the outcomes of student learning at the end of teaching when there is no longer the opportunity to change teaching practice. Thus, the NGSS performance expectations for one disciplinary core idea may be connected to performance expectations for other core ideas, both within the same domain or in other domains, in multiple ways: one core idea may be a prerequisite for understanding another, or a task may be linked to more than one performance expectation and thus involve more than one practice in the context of a given core idea. Depending on the prevalence of particular problematic ideas or forms of reasoning and their persistence in subsequent class discussion, teachers can choose to use a “contingent activity” that provides a different way of presenting a disciplinary core idea. The primary conclusion we draw from these examples is that it is possible to design tasks and contexts in which teachers elicit students’ thinking about disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts by engaging them in scientific practices. The Next Generation Science Standards require that assessment tasks be designed so that they can accurately locate students along a sequence of progressively more complex understandings of a core idea and successively more sophisticated applications of practices and crosscutting concepts (Conclusion 2-2). FIGURE 4-9 Ecosystems target model for Example 8, “Ecosystems.”. As part of an extended unit, students complete four assessment tasks. We note, though, that each of these practices has multiple aspects, so multiple tasks would be needed to provide a complete picture of students’ capacity with each of them. ], Ms. B: OK. Talk to your partners. Or if the students are weak on understanding of the core idea, the teacher might review the concepts of species abundance or species richness. As they begin the task, students are not competent data. ask Haley some questions. Professional development must support teachers in integrating practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas in inclusive and engaging instruction and in using new modes of assessment that support such instructional activities. They may also include formal classroom exams that cover the material from one or more instructional units (called “proximal assessments”).1 This category may also include assessments created by curriculum developers and embedded in instructional materials for teacher use. The actual classroom discussion is shown in Box 4-2. Other students disagree that there can be air between the particles or that air particles are touching, although they do not yet articulate an argument for empty space between the particles, an idea that students begin to understand more clearly in subsequent lessons. These documents are brand new and the changes they call for are barely under way, but the new assessments will be needed as soon as states and districts begin the process of implementing the NGSS and changing their approach to science education. Some students object to Haley’s proposal: Haley: Air is everywhere, so the air would be everything. A classroom assessment may also involve a formal test or diagnostic quiz. Those projections are taken from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data predictions for the year 2100 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007): see Figure 4-7. guidance that tasks might include, depending on their purpose and the stage students will have reached in the curriculum when they undertake the tasks. The results of classroom assessments are evaluated by the teacher or sometimes by groups of teachers in the school. All of them require students to use some aspects of one or more science and engineering practices in the course of demonstrating and defending their understanding of aspects of a disciplinary core idea. The report offers a systems approach to science assessment, in which a range of assessment strategies are designed to answer different kinds of questions with appropriate degrees of specificity and provide results that complement one another. If assessment is to be used in classrooms to help students learn, it must be transformed in two fundamental ways. One of the first things to consider when planning for assessment is its purpose. Second, the design of each task was determined by its purpose (formative or summative) and the point in the curriculum at which it was to be used. What Is the Purpose of Classroom Assessments? If a student draws an arrow that links a food consumer to the wrong source of matter and energy, a feedback box coaches the student to observe again by reviewing the animation, thus providing formative feedback. The discussion of the models not only reveals the students’ understanding about the phenomenon, but also allows the teacher to evaluate progress, uncover problematic issues, and help students construct and refine their models. Addison proposes a compromise, and Ms. B pushes for clarification. Although these preconceptions are often labeled as misconceptions or problematic ideas, they are the base on which student learning must be built. They are unaware of how displays can convey ideas or of professional conventions for display and the rationale for these conventions. This is part of the process of integrating teaching and assessment. In this case, the key disciplinary idea is that there must be empty space between moving particles, which allows them to move, either to become more densely packed or to spread apart. Some of the student displays make a bell-like shape more evident, which inspires further questions and considerations in the whole-class discussion (see Figure 3-15 in Chapter 3): students notice that the tails of the distribution are comparatively sparse, especially for the longer larvae, and wonder why. Students select their answers using clickers. This set of four assessment tasks was designed to provide evidence of 5th-grade students’ developing proficiency with a body of knowledge that blends a disciplinary core idea (biodiversity; LS4 in the NGSS; see Box 2-1 in Chapter 2) and a crosscutting concept (patterns) with three different practices: planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and constructing explanations (see Songer et al., 2009; Gotwals and Songer, 2013). Tasks 3 and 4, which target the same performance expectation but have different assessment purposes, illustrate this point. Research on the assessments supports the idea that this approach could be a part of a coherent, balanced state science assessment system: see discussion in Chapter 6. clickers are the stimulus for class discussion (assessment conversation). Reprinted with permission. Formative assessments may also be used for reflection among small groups of students or by the whole class together. For what will they use them? In this example, the students’ argument about the models plays two roles: it is an opportunity for students to defend or challenge their existing ideas, and it is an opportunity for the teacher to observe what the students are thinking and to decide that she needs to pursue the issue of what is between the particles of air. As part of the assessment, students also complete tasks that ask them to construct descriptions, explanations, and conclusions. The committee chose this example because it illustrates several of the characteristics we argue an assessment aligned with the NGSS must have: in particular, it allows the teacher to place students along a defined learning trajectory (see Figure 3-13 in Chapter 3), while assessing both a disciplinary core idea and a crosscutting concept.4 The assessment component is formative, in that it helps the teacher understand what students already understood about data display and to adjust the instruction accordingly. SOURCE: SimScientists Calipers II project (2013). Tasks designed with the characteristics we have discussed (three dimensions, interconnections among concepts and practices, a way to identify students’ place on a continuum) produce artifacts, discussions, and activities that provide teachers with information about students’ thinking and so can help them make decisions about how to proceed or how to adjust subsequent instruction or to evaluate the learning that took place over a specified period of time. The silkworm scenario is designed so that students’ responses to the tasks can be interpreted in reference to a trajectory of increasingly sophisticated forms of reasoning. According to the distribution map for Future 3 the American Kestrel does not move from the location. What these examples have in common is that they allow teachers to group students into categories, which helps with the difficult task of making sense of many kinds of student thinking; they also provide tools for helping teachers decide what to do next. The data collection tasks in “Biodiversity in the Schoolyard” (Example 6, above) are part of students’ ongoing investigations, not separate from them, but they can provide evidence that can be used for formative purposes. When students are involved in the assessment process, though, they can come to see themselves as competent learners. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. [pointing to the air particles touching one another in the diagram]. For the purpose of making an appraisal of student learning, no single piece of evidence is likely to be sufficient; rather, the pattern of evidence across multiple components can provide a sufficient indicator of student understanding. Science and engineering practices lend themselves well to assessment activities that can provide this type of evidence. They notice the pressure. In “Movement of Water” (Example 5, above), multiple-choice questions that students answer using. Computer software allows teachers to tailor online assessment tasks to their purpose and to the stage of learning that students have reached, by offering more or less supporting information, TASK AND CODING RUBRIC FOR TASK 4 IN EXAMPLE 6, . SOURCE: Songer et al. The facets perspective assumes that, in addition to problematic thinking, students also possess insights and understandings about the disciplinary core idea that can be deepened and revised through additional learning opportunities (Minstrell and van Zee, 2003). My Explanation [figure or text box?]. However, the constructs being measured by each of these examples are similar to those found in the NGSS performance expectations. The activity involves disciplinary core ideas (similar to Earth’s systems in the NGSS) and engages students in practices, including modeling and constructing examples. Example 1, “What Is Going on Inside Me?” (in Chapter 2), shows how a single assessment task can be designed to yield evidence related to multiple performance expectations, such as applying physical science concepts in a life science context. Copyright by the author; used with permission. The NGSS performance expectations each blend a practice and, in some cases, also a crosscutting idea with an aspect of a particular core idea. In the past, assessment tasks have typically focused on measuring students’ understanding of aspects of core ideas or of science practices as discrete pieces of knowledge. When the climate changes the focal species will have to move north because it won’t be able to stand the warm weather. This report reviews recent and current work in science assessment to determine which aspects of the Framework's vision can be assessed with available techniques and what additional research and development will be needed to support an assessment system that fully meets that vision. (This is often called pedagogical content knowledge.) Ms. B: What is it that you’re thinking about? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Alyssa: But then, how would you show the other molecules? Students need frequent opportunities to reflect on where their … 1 Identify Student Strengths and Weaknesses. Student discourse can give the teacher a window into students’ thinking and help to guide lesson planning. The contingent activities that provide alternative ways for students to master the core ideas (by engaging in particular practices) are an integral component of the formative assessment process. The food they eat might not be out of hibernation or done growing in the area it migrates to. The simulation generates reports to students about their progress toward goals for conceptual understanding and use of practices, and it also provides a variety of reporting options for teachers. They are generally used to assess students’ understanding of material in the current course, but with minor modifications they can also be used to gauge students’ knowledge coming into a course or program. Reports generated for teachers and students indicate the level of additional help students may need and classify students into groups for which tailored, follow-on, reflection activities are recommended (to be conducted during a subsequent class period). The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework for understanding a reformed view of assessment, where assessment plays an integral role in teaching and learning. The assessments are used formatively and are closely tied to classroom instruction. the gathering of information about how far students have progressed along a defined sequence of learning. In this example, 6th-grade students are asked to develop a model to explain the behavior of air. . ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. They may be based on the content and skills defined in state or national standards, but they do not necessarily reflect the specific content that was covered in any particular classroom. 16These same features also make it difficult to display the full impact of the simulation in this report. Such external assessments and their monitoring function are the subject of the next chapter. SOURCE: Krajcik et al. 4This example is also discussed in Chapter 3 in the context of using construct modeling for task design. The committee chose this flexible online assessment task to demonstrate how assessment can be customized to suit different purposes. These forms of reasoning also become a topic of instructional conversations, so that students are encouraged to consider additional aspects of data representation, including tradeoffs about what different kinds of displays do and do not show about the same data. Why does this river look like a triangle (or fan) where it flows into the ocean? Thus, as discussed in Chapter 2, uncovering students’ incomplete forms of practice and understanding is critical: NGSS-aligned assessments will need to clearly define the forms of evidence associated with beginning, intermediate, and sophisticated levels of knowledge and practice expected for a particular instructional sequence. If you make it all dark, you can just erase it and all of them will be. Table of Contents. The tasks may be used for both formative and summative purposes: they are designed to function close to instruction. To provide you with a comprehensive repertoire, I have labeled each assessment as Individual, Partner, Small Group, or Whole Class. a claim (the prediction) as to whether or not they believe the IPCC scenario information suggests that climate change will affect their chosen animal; reasoning that connects their prediction to the model-based evidence, such as noting that their species needs a particular prey to survive; and. If that goes on long enough, they lose confidence and stop trying. If students have difficulty in developing explanations, teachers can guide students to activities designed to improve their understanding, such as interpreting models of the deposition of surface and subsurface materials. Fourth, practitioners will be needed to ensure that the tasks and interpretive frameworks linked to them are usable in classrooms. Many advocates of the portfolio assessment argue that this makes it a superior assessment tool because it is demonstrates learning and growth over an extended period of time. The + and ++ symbols represent the number of guides provided in the task. (2013). CHARACTERISTICS OF NGSS-ALIGNED ASSESSMENTS. Classroom assessments can play an integral role in students’ learning experiences while also providing evidence of progress in that learning. The NGSS emphasize the importance of the connections among scientific concepts. Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role in the classroom. [Multiple students talking]. Instructions: Once you have formed your team, your teacher will assign your team to a zone in the schoolyard. Tasks or teacher questions also have to successfully elicit and display students’ problematic ways of reasoning about disciplinary core ideas and problematic aspects of their participation in practices. In “Measuring Silkworms” and “Biodiversity in the Schoolyard,” students’ responses to the different tasks can provide evidence of their understanding of the crosscutting concept of patterns. They make clear that students should be encouraged to take an investigative stance toward their own and others’ ideas, to be open about what they are struggling to understand, and to recognize that struggle as part of the way science is done, as well as part of their own learning process. Pairs or small groups of students then discuss their reasoning and offer explanations for their choices to the whole class. Thus, instead of scoring rubrics, criteria or rubrics that can help guide instructional decisions may be used. Assessments used for formative purposes occur during the course of a unit of instruction and may involve both formal tests and informal activities conducted as part of a lesson. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. The Framework is aimed at making science education more closely resemble the way scientists actually work and think, and making instruction reflect research on learning that demonstrates the importance of building coherent understandings over time. Whether teaching at the undergraduate or graduate level, it is important for instructors to strategically evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching by measuring the extent to which students in the classroom are learning the course material. Assessment usually conjures up images of an end-of-unit test, a quarterly report card, a state-level examination on basic skills, or the letter grade for a final laboratory report. “Movement of Water” presents an alternative example, using what is called a facets-based approach18 to track the stages in a learning progression (discussed in Chapter 2)—that is, to identify ideas that are commonly held by students relative to a disciplinary core idea. The committee chose this example to show how a teacher can monitor developing understanding in the course of a lesson. In many of these examples, listening to and engaging with other students as they discuss and defend their responses is a part of the learning process, as students work toward a classroom consensus explanation or a model based on the evidence they have collected. They provide a way for students to engage in scientific practices and for teachers to instantly monitor what the students do and do not understand. It structures science education around three dimensions - the practices through which scientists and engineers do their work, the key crosscutting concepts that cut across disciplines, and the core ideas of the disciplines - and argues that they should be interwoven in every aspect of science education, building in sophistication as students progress through grades K-12. The model would be very difficult for students to observe or investigate using printed curriculum materials.16 For example, Figure 4-10 shows part of a simulated mountain lake environment. Some abiotic features that could affect the focal species could be the climate, but it won’t move the focal species from the location. The products of such instruction form a natural link to the characteristics of classroom assessment that aligns with the NGSS. The first three serve formative purposes and are designed to function close to instruction, informing the teacher about how well students have learned key concepts and mastered practices. In this sense, formative assessment informs both teachers and students about student understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made. dents’ thinking beyond their written (and drawn) responses to a task. 19The phrase “disposition to engage” is used in the context of science education to refer to students’ degree of engagement with and motivation to persevere with scientific thinking. or retention decisions; and classifying test takers according to defined performance categories, such as “basic,” “proficient,” and “advanced” (levels often used in score reporting) (Andrade and Cizek, 2010, p. 3). forecasts of the impacts of climate change on organisms and ecosystems.14 This example illustrates four potential benefits of online assessment tasks: 14This performance expectation is similar to two in the NGSS ones: HS-LS2-2 and HS-ESS3-5, which cover the scientific practices of analyzing and interpreting data and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating evidence. 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Conceptions of data visualization have to live farther north where temperatures are suitable its! Review of responses inspire us to ask these hard questions: `` are purpose of classroom assessment going to put in the.!
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